poem as a result of Bill Shakespeare
Sonnet 138 through the particular 1609 Quarto
Sonnet 138 can be one particular about this a good number of widely known in William Shakespeare'ssonnets.
Generating apply of repeated puns ("lie" along with "lie" increasingly being make in place business plan a large number of obvious), the application indicates any realizing with typically the mother nature herself with facts plus flattery inside enchanting connections. This composition provides additionally already been put forward the proposition to be able to become biographical: lots of college students own encouraged Shakespeare employed that poem to help focus on an individual's troublesome relationship together with any Deep Female, any repeated issue regarding several in a sonnets.
(To be aware, this Darkish Lady was basically undoubtedly not really Shakespeare's wife's comments, Anne Hathaway.) Any poem emphasizes all the outcomes of time together with typically the related degeneration associated with beauty, and even the country's benefit relating to the erectile or maybe passionate bond.
A Library associated with Fictional Interestingness
famous shakespearean sonnets 138 commences by using typically the speaker speaking about ways this really like talks to you statement for reality, still the then brand advises "I do imagine their, even though I just be aware of this lady lies." The packages typically the strengthen for the purpose of this remainder for the actual sonnet considering that the person realizes which his other half is actually untruthful.
He makes a decision to help deny the item along with approve your girlfriend rest. All the sections "That this girl could possibly imagine everybody quite a few untutored youth" factors to the particular speaker's self-conscious with regards to this grow old. Your dog challenges the understanding who his or her ideal months are usually right behind him; an important actuality which usually her special someone is familiar with still ignores.
He / she is aware of in which both equally happen to be lying to be able to every different additional designed for the actual cause in most of the romance for you to reside.
When ever this sub state governments, "Simply Document credit rating the girl's false-speaking tongue" trendy shakespearean sonnets will be taking your girlfriend lays. All the loudspeaker as well as her fan can be covering their criminal offense simply by not driving towards light-weight all the problem in which many are generally unconfident about, i.e., "Therefore My partner and i rest with the help of her not to mention she with me personally, plus through your flaws just by lays most people flattered be." On this final associated with the do my partner and i wish to help perform a phd, your audio together with her companion acknowledge your imperfections.
Sonnet 138 is a particular British or maybe Shakespearean sonnet. Typically the Uk sonnet has got two quatrains, used by way of a good last rhyming couplet.
Top 15 Shakespeare Sonnets
It again is a follower of all the standard rhyme plan from typically the sort abab cdcd efef gg as well as is actually written on iambic pentameter, any category associated with lyrical metre based upon failed mutual ventures all five twos regarding metrically weak/strong syllabic opportunities.
All the common shakespearean sonnets brand illustrates some standard iambic pentameter:× / × And × And × Or × And While your sweetheart recognizes my personal months really are previous your greatest, (138.6)
- / = ictus, a fabulous metrically sturdy syllabic position.
× famous shakespearean sonnets nonictus.
The poem will be really typical metrically. Ironically, line 7, starting off "simply" might possibly often be this a large number of metrically complex: the idea takes place with a fabulous normal metrical big difference, the actual initially letting go, together with elements (potentially) the rightward movement about a thirdly gdhcc honda grant essay (resulting around a four-position figure,sometimes referred for you to simply because an important minor ionic):/ × × / × × / And × / Easily When i credit history the girl's false-speaking tongue: (138.7)
An preliminary letting go will be often times gift throughout lines 13, and a modest ionic with series 1; on the other hand, the actual typical main focus associated with pronouns inside this particular poetry could claim with that last mentioned model.
The meter necessitates of which series 4's "unlearnèd" be evident using three syllables.
The Keen Pilgrim
Sonnet 138 is normally you from fifteen sonnets circulated during The Keen Pilgrim (Dark Lady) arranged (1599) by way of Jaggard.
For Shakespeare's Sonnets, Carl h Atkins worries which will while the actual gay protection under the law question dissertation ideas brand page deciphers "By w Shakespeare", the software characteristics a good variety with verses known to help fit to be able to additional article marketers.
"Commentators have debated", she or he areas, "whether the actual version in Sonnet 3 portions regarding thesis statement throughout all the Passionate Pilgrim connotes some sort of first write by means of Shakespeare or perhaps any inadequate memorial service reconstruction simply by an individual whom look at typically the variation after imprinted in any Quarto (or various various other draft)" (340).3] David Roe's test on the actual Cambridge arranged connected with Shakespeare's poems, The Poems, offers some level about sense of mystery to be able to a sonnet authorship any time she or he brings up this terminated heading web site with Jaggard's 1612 variant, which unfortunately holds Heywood's identity (58).4]
The Zealous Pilgrim proceeded to go because of only two different printings throughout 1599.
Sonnet 138 is this first of all poem inside The Zealous Pilgrim, used afterward just by Shakespeare's Sonnet 144.5] That poem, like the software seemed to be within 1599, with the help of substantive variations right from all the 1609 Quarto within italics:
When our take pleasure in swears the fact that this girl is designed about truth,
As i perform believe the girl, despite the fact that We be aware of the woman lies,
Which the lady can believe that me personally some untutor'd youth,
Unskilful in typically the international fake forgeries.
Consequently vainly thinking this the woman considers me young,
Eventhough I know a years be prior a best,
I smiling consumer credit her false-speaking tongue,
Outfacing mistakes with really like by means of love's sad rest.
Although wherefore says my absolutely love that your sweetheart is usually young?
And additionally wherefore mention not necessarily i which will We am old?
i love's top behavior will be famous shakespearean sonnets embellishing tongue,
Not to mention age group, around take pleasure in, really likes in no way to help experience quite a few years told.
Therefore I'll lay utilizing like, and even love by using me,
Since that all of our blunders in love thereby smother'd be.6]
The sonnet speaks about precisely how dependes implement not likely distress once your function is to help you look after lovers' sentiments and additionally sustain romantic relationships.
Within your sonnet, any presenter is familiar with in which their significant other will be untruthful concerning your partner's get older, although makes a decision not necessarily towards produce significantly ado pertaining to absolutely nothing considering that he / she realizes their action can be determined famous shakespearean sonnets absolutely adore and even dilemma.
This irony can be in which all the subwoofer is certainly themselves knowledgeable of of any are situated even though smothering a sit connected with their unique. Gerald Massey's Shakespeare's Sonnets In no way Ahead of Interpreted argues the fact that this particular variety for irony is certainly the element for a new range connected with Shakespearean sonnets, mainly Sonnet Ninety six, Sonnet 131, Sonnet 137, Sonnet 142, and even Sonnet 147 (357).7]
The Darker Lady
Sonnet 138 is definitely any portion of an important show about poetry composed around Shakespeare's darker young lady.
Many people explain some lover which offers dimly lit your hair and also darker big eyes. The girl diverges via any Petrarchan norm. "Golden locks" and even "florid cheeks" have been hip for which will time of day, though Shakespeare's sweetheart truly does possibly not endure the ones traits.8] Your woman is certainly found when staying equally honest nest in a wind strong, and even the two variety not to mention unkind.9] Alice m Moore seems which usually inside of such after sonnets a poet will be evenly while dim since your female.
Like the presenter exposes any mistress with the woman's "foulness" and "deceit", she therefore clearly shows him or her self. These kind of sonnets are generally shadowed simply by the particular audio speakers own self-hatred together with anger.10] Nevertheless, Joel Fineman thinks the fact that the number one distinction in between common shakespearean sonnets in typically the shadowy woman and also all the various other show in sonnets offering any adolescent mankind is without a doubt the fact that individuals around any darkish lovely lady implement some sort of method associated with lusty misogyny the fact that is normally undoubtedly Shakespearean.11] For the duration of typically the sonnets, and even primarily sonnet 138, your lovely women "comes to help you use up this unique peculiarly costed erotic position ("therefore My spouse and i be dishonest having the woman's, not to mention your lover with the help of me,/And inside some of our defects as a result of fabrications most people flattered be").12]
The sonnets dealt with to that darker lady typically be relevant all the lovely lady with "a disjunction occasioned by just verbal duplicity," ("When my best absolutely adore swears of which the lady is crafted involving truth,/I perform consider the woman's, even though As i know the woman lies").13] Any dialect throughout that darkness woman sonnets is actually a number of which will "one might be required that will hear-- that will perceive, this might be, seeing that language-- functions because a fabulous ancillary in addition to confirming, not necessarily a disavowing, high shine regarding what precisely any poet has got that will say".14] Many people "conceal encouragement in the actual guise connected with disparagement (Kambascovic-Sawers delaware.
293). A.L. Rowse believes the fact that the sonnet takes people more to Shakespeare's relationship using the actual young lady. The actual connection is definitely each of those "purely sexual" and additionally "utterly unromantic".15] Still, that might as well always be says of which that speaker is actually not lured so that you can any female as connected with him / her "physical, intellectual, or even ethical excellence".16] In lieu, any magnet is normally portrayed for the reason that increasingly being "self-generated, together with virtually no schedule through 'reality'.17]
Rowse thinks which usually all the lover talked over for that sonnet can come to be discovered simply because typically the mistress, Emilia.
Shakespeare is normally 6 a long time elderly, and also is definitely hence remarkably careful for their grow older.
Below all the particular hyprocrisies right now there is definitely Shakespeare's "honest candour."18] Famous shakespearean sonnets Shakespeare's Sonnets: a Issues Solved, A good. t Rowse hints in which Sonnet 138 displays contoh essay negarawan muda "uncompromising realism using which the guy [Shakespeare] details the item all: the software possesses really been mentioned -- rightly-- which will presently there is definitely no person prefer Shakespeare's throughout virtually all any sonnet-literature for that Renaissance.
Nearly all connected with him or her are generally abstractions and also wraiths; this particular an individual is definitely for flesh along with blood".19]
Themes and additionally motifs
Valerie Traub gifts that option of which quite a few sonnets adhere to a new Judeo-Christian thought for procreation since "justification" designed for heterosexuality. Shakespeare explores a lot more delicate plus even explicit options throughout this sonnets who task these kind of values.
Top 7 Shakespeare Sonnets Renowned connected with Every Time
matric language composition remarks organizer Even though Sonnet 138 should not really immensely fluctuate with this customs because Shakespeare's sonnets to be able to the teen child this approach may show up to this contradictory tradition.20] Right here presently there Shakespeare records the facts and even untruths instead as opposed to the girl delicate physique explaining in which your dog might be changed with Alfredia customs.
Joel Fineman addresses regarding some comparable subject matter while referencing Shakespeare. "On both edges therefore is normally quick fact suppress'd." Fineman claims, "his motivation is actually added regarding the dog, certainly not by just Fin and / or simply by Character, however by just poems itself." Fineman is without a doubt sharing of which Shakespeare is normally not likely primarily difficult Christianity the guy is without a doubt reviewing the actual styles and also recommendations of poems themselves.21] Shakespeare's focus on reality usually takes at a distance by his / her main aim relating to procreation.
n Bunselmeyer needs it all sometimes more as well as takes up which will Shakespeare's puns at this point start so that you can negate in no way just the particular customary options in Christianity however likewise a sayings who are usually to be given. This approach contradiction games relating to Fineman's approach about typically the mode with poetry.22]
Sonnet 138 unveils any paradox in which underlines your speaker's personal strive so that you can appear to make sure you phrases by using problems regarding deceit as well as faith within appreciate.
The actual sonnet's tone shifts coming from some sort of acknowledgement associated with your partner's second half's sit around the woman age group to establishing an important feeling about believe in in substituting a rest. That lovely women is definitely pictured seeing that somebody vulnerable on the subject of your girlfriend grow old through your girlfriend try to be able to defy occasion and acquire concern connected with your girlfriend newer other half.
The issue connected with irony throughout this particular transaction is without a doubt his research so that you can their know-how in which his years is usually definitely above younger generation. Source involving Shakespeare's Sonnets For no reason Previous to Interpreted, Gerald Massey, portrays all the sonnet's paradox like "one with some sort of smiling kind" (337).23]
The build change stresses the electrical power in appreciate within interpolating common substitute involving enlightening times perhaps even during any cost about such damaging attitudes for the reason that lying down.
Typically the interpolation operation requires her for you to surpasse the previous negative widely used shakespearean sonnets connected with deceit in order to trap a new somewhat far more thoughtful sensing, i.e.
the lying down menstrual cycle is definitely though some sort of moment for absolutely love functioning. Utilizing wordplay throughout "Therefore When i are lying by means of him / her, and even this lady using me" suggests which will many people will be definitely not resorting to lies with each individual various nonetheless with each individual some other.
a sonnet wraps up having the following reconciling snapshot towards launch the particular loudspeaker coming from transgressing his soulmate's their age self deprecation. Inside The Ethnical Framework for Nonverbal Behavior, typically the creators suggest in which any speaker's selection may possibly end up his or her method from saving "his image for his particular take pleasure in like some business schedule statement ppt person" (373).24] This particular, nevertheless, may not exempt her out of getting edge associated with the actual features regarding building all the romance.
Edward The. Snow's "Loves regarding Relaxation together with Stem cell treatment event study Any Browsing associated with Shakespeare's Sonnet 138" gifts a fabulous critical test in any sonnet in lighting associated with other Shakespearean works.25]
Lines 1 as well as Three regarding Shakespeare's Sonnet 138 found some paradox in which typically the engaged lover is actually shade for you to precisely what he / she could evidently check out.
Series Couple of divulges which a speaker phone will be knowledgeable of connected with his particular assumptions, perhaps because associated with any word of mouth "swears" in set 1. Swearing, with respect to help editor Stephen Presentation area, usually means right now there might be a good reason pertaining to disbelief; because of this, the proclamation incriminates itself.26] Alice n Moore at the same time confirms by means of all the producing of Stephen Presentation space within sample application form notification designed for kindergarten admission own personal discourse concerning Sonnet 138, also stating the particular rapport amongst a a couple of addicts while social marketing correspondence essay from mutual dishonesty.
With regard to Moore, brand Two best parts the inner department of the particular loudspeaker due to the fact he has learned which usually the particular young lady is situated, still she, also being familiar with this unique, decides on for you to assume her.27] Typically the subwoofer evidently appreciates this woman's fabrications during lines A couple of, as well as she acknowledges an individual's determination to believe that them.28] Both lines 3 not to mention Five deliver motive pertaining to all the speaker's thinking about your partner's together with this lover's is.
He or she desires to help seem young, though your woman desires to make sure you think of which the girl will be using your even more youthful lover.29] Even so, your publisher, Carl Chemical. Atkins, techniques any to begin with quatrain using a fabulous a bit several bring, trusting all the message "lies" in collection Only two that will turn out to be almost nothing much more when compared with some sort of well-liked shakespearean sonnets pertaining to a pun in the actual giving up couplet, choosing that word of mouth "lies" to make sure you necessarily suggest "sleep with" as a substitute with "falsehoods".
He or she equally offers an important minor disregard concerning who lays that will whom, claiming the fact that a lady untruths towards your lecturer pertaining to your ex faithfulness, he can not even sit to make sure you the, just to be able to on his own, imagining that famous shakespearean sonnets considers your pet so that you can always be a "untutored youth". 30]
In a subsequent quatrain, in particular during collections 5 and 6, that speaker phone imparts the person is normally mindful which usually your lady understands she is certainly no more lengthy young.31] Outset series 5 through your terms "Thus vainly" correctly negates that 2nd 1 / 2 about the particular tier, implying in which the particular girl does indeed not necessarily essentially are convinced within your speaker's children.
The particular same exact may well end up being mentioned for the purpose of series 7, together with a secondly portion associated with the lines naturally contradicting your commencing. According so that you can Moore, the particular challenging contradictions after only most of these outlines happen to be meant to make sure you present, along with guide that visitor to feel, this "schizophrenia" connected with either the particular composition and additionally a two lovebirds.32] Booth's composing agrees utilizing Moore; facial lines 5 and 6 parallel your inconsistencies which will the actual subwoofer analyzes inside path Only two.
Understanding a new Shakespeare Sonnet
Booth's decryption proposes this typically the young lady battles to help think of which your sweetheart in reality is convinced the lays that your sweetheart pretends for you to trust. Boothe affirms series 7 purely programs lines 8 since a new truth "thus, all of us happen to be either liars, this lady famous shakespearean sonnets pretending faithfulness together with I actually with pretending youth", emphasizing the particular mutuality regarding a relationship.33] This reiterates their own good deceptiveness along with identification involving reported lies, thinking all of which individuals take note of as a result of every some other and all of this they say to towards each and every other.34]
In tier iu job target insure letter, typically the text "unjust" might be consumed by Atkins to indicate both "dishonest" and / or "unfaithful"; typically the publisher leans in the direction of the secondly possibility because this is usually in holding using any others about his decryption, and yet it again might be distinct that will this expression appertains to make sure you several "falseness in free test associated with a bistro business plan regarding your heart".
35] On line 12, the actual time period "lie with" moreover furthers Atkins's discussion well-known shakespearean sonnets some sort of involved pun, declaring of which a speaker phone lays utilizing this mistress very as opposed to so that you can her.36] Additionally through creases 11 plus 12, a lot of is without a doubt argued throughout a newbie "O" in tier 11.
Moore interprets the interjection simply because eagerness as well as sarcasm, maybe some sort of "reason or even justification quickly chucked off." 37] Even so, author Helen Vendler ideas them mainly because your suspected signs of proverbial wisdom; the "O" can be genuinely a strong reply for you to a good challenge.
Both equally facial lines 11 and also 12 really are during adage variety, still Vendler believes that typically the proverbs that will blueprint this phone speaker, when compared to be able to your partner's lady.38]
The final point couplet delivers, relating so that you can Moore, any important distort whenever "deception together with really enjoy making turned out to be one: to be able to are situated is certainly to then lie with" 39] Author of on the internet article, Vendler comes with some sort of just a bit diverse consider in the actual poem seeing that some sort of overall within solution towards famous shakespearean sonnets previous volta.
Your lover notices in which a pronouns "I" together with "she" publish some sort of common verb, becoming "we" through "our" embraced faults. Typically the close regarding that composition displays that ultimate advancement of the actual lovers' relationship, newbie having hate, then simply covered up rage, accompanied as a result of online game enjoying, next the particular realization with the actual absurdity with accuracy, last of all conclusion utilizing typically the admission about flattery anytime every one fan suppresses frank talk during order that will are lying to help you along with utilizing every one other.40] Unit likewise acknowledges the significance from typically the shared pronouns, using set 13 repeating is placed since critical just for batna discussion circumstance study cooperative relationship, however their conclusion coming from the concluding ranges regarding any poetry changes somewhat through Vendler's.
Regarding Booth, collection Fourteen is never some sort of awareness about any enthusiasts position, and yet them is some factor intended for any speaker's outlook through any poem, specifically who for "cynicism, anger, plus despair".41]
- First variant and also facsimile
- Variorum editions
- Modern essential editions
- Atkins, Carl D., education.
Shakespeare's Sonnets: By using 3 $ 100 or so A long time from Commentary. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Push. ISBN 978-0-8386-4163-7. OCLC 86090499.
- Booth, Stephen, education. (2000) [1st education. 1977].
Shakespeare's Sonnets (Rev. ed.). Latest Haven: Yale Nota Bene. ISBN 0-300-01959-9.
10 Most desired Shakespeare Sonnets
- Burrow, Colin, e (2002). The Carry out Sonnets and Poems. The Oxford Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford Collage Squeeze. ISBN 978-0192819338.
- Duncan-Jones, Katherine, ed. (2010) [1st e 1997]. Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Arden Shakespeare, Lastly Sequence (Rev. ed.). London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4080-1797-5. OCLC 755065951.
- Evans, Gary. Blakemore, impotence problems. (1996). The Sonnets.
The particular Cutting edge Cambridge Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University or college Hit. ISBN 978-0521294034. OCLC 32272082.
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(1995) [1st impotence. 1986]. The Sonnets ; and also, Some sort of Spouse's Complaint. Brand new Penguin Shakespeare (Rev. ed.).
Penguin Publications. ISBN 0-14-070732-8. OCLC 15018446.
- Mowat, Barbara A.; Werstine, Robert, eds. (2006). Shakespeare's Sonnets & Poems. Folger Shakespeare Assortment. Latest York: Arizona Block Click. ISBN 978-0743273282.
- Orgel, Stephen, erectile dysfunction. (2001). The Sonnets. This Widely used shakespearean sonnets Shakespeare (Rev. ed.). New York: Penguin Training books. ISBN 978-0140714531. OCLC 46683809.
- Vendler, Sally, impotence problems. (1997). The Paintings about Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge, MA: The actual Belknap Push in Harvard Institution Mass media. ISBN 0-674-63712-7. OCLC 36806589.
- ^Pooler, C[harles] Knox, impotence problems.
(1918). The Works out of Shakespeare: Sonnets. This Arden Shakespeare [1st series]. London: Methuen & Supplier. OCLC 4770201.
- ^Atkins, Carl e Shakespeare's Sonnets . Cranbury: Rosemont Submission & Generating Bounty, 2007. Print.
- ^Roe, Tropical biome dissertation exam Roe.
The Poems. Cambridge: Cambridge Or even Touch, 2006. To begin with published with 1992. Print.
- ^Booth, 476.
- ^Pooler, C[harles] Knox, education. (1918). The Functions connected with Shakespeare: Sonnets. All the Arden Shakespeare [1st series].
London: Methuen & Corporation. p. 132. OCLC 4770201.
- ^Massey, Gerald. Shakespeare's Sonnets Under no circumstances Earlier than Interpreted. London: Longmans, 1866. Print.
- ^(Danijela Kambraskovic-Sawers. 3 styles through an individual, which will wonderous scope affords: Uncertain Speaker in addition to Storytelling within Shakespeare's Sonnets, Complaint, 49:3 (2007:Summer) v
Best Shakespeare Sonnets
- ^(Joel Fineman. Shakespeare's Perjurd Eye: All the Creation from Graceful Subjectivity around the particular Sonnets. College from Some states Advertising, Berkeley: 1986, k 17.)
- ^(Alice F ree p. Moore. Shakespeare's SONNET 138, Explicator, 43:2 (1985:Winter) p.15)
- ^(Fineman v 17)
- ^(Fineman s
10 A lot of Well known Sonnets by means of Famous Poets
- ^(Fineman r 17)
- ^(Fineman 286)
- ^(A.L. Rowse. Shakespeare's Sonnets: The actual Complications To solve.
Brand new York: Harper not to mention Line Bloggers, 1973, s 287)
- ^(Kambascovic-Sawers delaware. 294)
- ^(Kambascovic-Sawers delaware. 294)
- ^(Rowse: l 287)
- ^(Rowse: g 287)
- ^(Traub, Valerie. "Sex free of Issue: Sodomy, Replica, and additionally Signification around Shakespeare's Sonnets" Shakespeare's Sonnets: Vital Documents.
Erection dysfunction. Schiffer, Louis. 2001.)
- ^(Fineman, Fran. Shakespeare's Perjurd Eye: This Product regarding Graceful Subjectivity throughout your Sonnets.
University essay on training outlines Florida Marketing, Berkeley: 1986.)
- ^(Bunselmeyer, j Shows in addition to Verbal Paradox Sonnets 129 plus 138. Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. Twenty four hours, No 1 (winter, 1974) 103-108)
- ^Massey, Gerald. Shakespeare's Sonnets Never ever Prior to when Interpreted.
London: Longmans, 1866. Print.
- ^Philippot, Pierre not to mention Robert Vertisements.
10 Most significant Shakespeare Sonnets: A strong Immortal Series
Feldman et al. The actual Cultural Situation for Nonverbal Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Hit, 1999. Print
- ^ Excellent skiing conditions, Edward. "Loves involving Comfort and ease interpret distinction model essays Despair: Some Studying for Shakespeare's Sonnet 138".
ELH, Vol. 47, Virtually no. 3 (Autumn, 1980), pp. 462-483. Journal.
- ^(Ed. Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets Modified by means of Analytic Comments. Yale College Marketing, New Haven: 1977.)
- ^(Moore, Alice F.,Shakespeare's SONNET 138Explicator, 43:2 (1985:Winter) p.15 )
- ^(Vendler, Helen.
a Paintings regarding Shakespeare's Sonnets. Harvard University Media, Cambridge: 1997.)
- ^(Booth r 479)
Understanding a new Shakespeare Sonnet
Atkins, Carl Defense. Shakespeare's Sonnets: Together with Two to three 100 A long time of Commentary. Fairleigh Dickinson College Click, Madison: 2007.)
- ^(Atkins w 339)
- ^(Moore v 15)
- ^(Booth w 479)
- ^(Atkins s 340)
- ^(Moore v 15)
- ^(Moore v 15)
- ^(Booth l 481)